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Wicka: The Chronicles of Elizabeth Blake

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a b c d e Alexander, Brooks; Russell, Jeffrey (2007). A New History of Witchcraft. Thames & Hudson. p.172. Wicca is influenced by the traditions of several religions and cults in medieval Europe. Many cite the works of folklorist Margaret Murray, including the 1921’s The Witch-Cult in Western Europe, as the basis of its ancient origin. The 11th century saw the arrival of Scholasticism. Scholastic philosophy meant that all of created nature became an object of scrutiny from which scholastics could create a model that applied to everything. The inquisitorial eye began to fix itself on aspects of folklore that had been smiled away or incorporated into Christian worship in earlier periods. Her occult store in Salem is one of the first in America, and she established the popular Witches’ Ball. Governor Michael Dukakis declared her the “Official Witch of Salem” in 1977 and in 1986 founded the Witches League of Public Awareness. WICCA AND FEMINISM

However, there are many different beliefs and traditions that make up the religion, so the meaning of the symbols may also vary among Wiccans. 1- The Elemental Symbols

The 8 Wiccan Sabbats

Wicca is and has always been a dynamic religion, changing and evolving over time as more and more people are drawn to learn, interpret and integrate its core tenets into their own experiences. While there are many traditionalists adhering as closely as they can to the “original” form of the Craft developed by Gardner, the explosion of interest in Wicca over the past several decades has led to new forms and pathways that continue to lead in new directions.

Wicca was first given a name in Gerald Gardner’s 1954 book Witchcraft Today, in which he announced it as “wica,” the extra “c” being added in the 1960s. According to Gardner, the word was derived from Scots-English and meant “wise people.” One of the mystery symbols of Wicca, the cauldron represents transformation. It’s also associated with the Celtic goddess Cerridwen and Roman goddess Ceres.

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Wiccan celebrant George Cameron ("The Hermit"), Grand Master of the Source Coven said: This is the most important event since the repeal of the Witchcraft Act in 1951. I am delighted because I have been trying to make this happen for many years. It is the biggest thing to hit pagan witchcraft for years. This is very significant as the ceremony is classed as a religious ceremony, which gives credence to the Craft and recognises it as a religious faith. ( A nice day for a witch wedding, The Scotsman Evening News, 16 September 2004.) Sammy Bishop (2018). Negotiating Gender in Contemporary Occultism - Interview with Manon Hedenborg White. The Religious Studies Project. 10 Dec 2018. Accessed online 12 Dec 2018 at https://www.religiousstudiesproject.com/podcast/negotiating-gender-in-contemporary-occultism/

Doyle White, Ethan (2016). Wicca: History, Belief, and Community in Modern Pagan Witchcraft. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-84519-754-4.There is no counsel for the defence. If you are found guilty, you could become one of the 30,000–60,000 people who were executed for witchcraft in the early modern era. The calendar of pagan festivals, the Wheel of the Year marks the Wiccan holidays or sabbats. It’s symbolized by an eight-spoke wheel that indicates each solstice and equinox. The history of Wicca documents the rise of the Neopagan religion of Wicca and related witchcraft-based Neopagan religions. [a] Wicca originated in the early 20th century, when it developed amongst secretive covens in England who were basing their religious beliefs and practices upon what they read of the historical witch-cult in the works of such writers as Margaret Murray. It also is based on the beliefs from the magic that Gerald Gardner saw when he was in India. It was subsequently founded in the 1950s by Gardner, who claimed to have been initiated into the Craft – as Wicca is often known – by the New Forest coven in 1939. Gardner's form of Wicca, the Gardnerian tradition, was spread by both him and his followers like the High Priestesses Doreen Valiente, Patricia Crowther and Eleanor Bone into other parts of the British Isles, and also into other, predominantly English-speaking, countries across the world. In the 1960s, new figures arose in Britain who popularized their own forms of the religion, including Robert Cochrane, Sybil Leek and Alex Sanders, and organizations began to be formed to propagate it, such as the Witchcraft Research Association. It was during this decade that the faith was transported to the United States, where it was further adapted into new traditions such as Feri, 1734 and Dianic Wicca in the ensuing decades, and where organizations such as the Covenant of the Goddess were formed.

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